The physiography of the Sundarbans is dominated by a vast and remote land mass, criss crossed with rivers, creeks and tidal channels. Road network and human habitation ends at North and North West fringe of the mangrove forest and further entry into the forest is only via water through boats. The temperature in Sunderbans. The soil of the Sundarbans is prone to high tide and low tide twice in a day and the salinity of the Indian part of Sunderbans i is higher that its Bangaledesh counterpart.
Sundarbans has a wide vaiety of flora and fauna. There are 334 plant species belonging to 245 genera and 75 families, 165 algae and 13 orchid species. All these have the capacity to withstand estuarine conditions and saline inundation on account of tidal effects.
The most common species are : Hatal (Phoenix paludosa), Genwa (Excoecaria agallocha), Dhundul (Xylocarpus granatum), Kankra (Bruguirea gymnorrhiza), Champa(Bruguiera parviflora), Dhani ghas (Porteresia coarctata), Garjan (Rhizophora apiculata), Keora (Sonneratia apelata), Sundari tree (Heritiera fomes), Golpati(Nypa frutcans).
Sundarbans is also rich in fauna with 693 species of wildlife, which includes mammals, reptiles, amphibians, white fishes, shrimps, crabs etc. Banks of these rivers are favorite spot for the fauna of the region and one can easily spot animals It is always advisable to visit these places either during sunset or during sunrise. Tiger, Fishing Cat, Chital, Wild Boar, Water Monitor, Estuarine Crocodiles are found here.
The area of Sundarban National Park (1330 sq km) and the three watchtowers mainly Sajnekhali, Sudhanyakhali and Dobanki are most commonly visited by the tourists. Sundarbans has its universal appeal as it is a habitat for globally endangered species including the Royal Bengal Tiger, Irawadi Dolphins, estuarine crocodiles, marine turtles, species of shark and ray and the critically endangered endemic river terrapin (Batagur Baska).
Sundarbans can be reached by rail, road and air. Sundarbans is around 110 kms from Kolkata by road. The nearest airport is the Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose Airport at Kolkata (112 kms). It takes around 3 hours of road journey and 2 hours of boat ride to reach Sundarbans,